Hot and spicy, cayenne pepper is available year round adding zest to flavorful dishes around the world and health to those brave enough to risk its fiery heat. The cayenne pepper is a member of the Capsicum family of vegetables, which are more commonly known as chili peppers. It is known botanically as Capsicum annuum. The common name “cayenne” was actually given to this pepper because of its cultivation in a town that bears the same name in French Guiana on the northeast coast of South America.